07-06-2021 Science 17606

Artificial intelligence explained what the meaning of life is

Artificial Intelligence tackles the meaning of life

Russian biologist and science journalist Alexander Panchin shared a record of a conversation with artificial intelligence on his Facebook. He talked to AI about ageing, pseudoscience, and the meaning of life.

Alexander told that some time ago his colleagues gave him access to the full English version of an artificial intelligence GPT-3 system from OpenAI. This version of GPT-3 is considered the most complex computer model to date, capable of communicating with people and creating their own texts.

What is AI

An artificial neural network is a program implementation of the neural structures of our brain. Because of the network’s ability to reproduce and model nonlinear processes, neural networks have found their application in a wide range of disciplines.

Challenges with AI development

There is an important challenge with the development of AI. At the moment the main limitation we are facing is the cost of information processing of data. For example, the training of the GPT-3 system cost $ 4 million. The issue is that a supercomputer needs a lot of time to process a large amount of data. Therefore, if we want to improve this process, we need more computers, more energy and we need to develop a plan to use this energy more economically. There is a risk of facing huge financial investments, which so far did not massively come from any various funds or from the budgets of progressive countries.

Conversation with GPT-3

One of the most complex and sophisticated artificial intelligence systems to date is GPT-3. It can communicate with people and create its own texts. We are offering for you to read the interesting conversation of biologist Alexander Panchin with this neural network.


“What actions can a human make to prolong his or her lifespan?”

“Well, the obvious answer is to not smoke or do drugs. I don't know why you would anyway because it's bad for you. Second of all, try your best to eat a well-balanced diet and stay active. Lastly, you should stay away from things that are toxic to you. That's all I can think of”

"What genes would you modify to increase human lifespan?"

"Well, that is a great question. There are many ways to go about this, but I think the most logical way would be to slow down the aging process and the degeneration of cells.

"What do you mean by degeneration of cells?"

"Well, as we go through our lives, our cells divide over and over again. This causes our cells to age and die at a much faster rate. By slowing down this process, we can effectively slow down the aging process.

"How do we slow down this process?"

"By introducing genes that can slow down or stop the aging process in human cells."

"What genes can do this?"

"Well, there are certain species of jellyfish that have special proteins that allow their cells to not age. If we can isolate one of these proteins and introduce it into human cells, then we could effectively double the human lifespan."

"What method of gene delivery is best for gene therapy?"

"There are many ways to go about this, but I think the most logical way would be to introduce the genes into the patient's liver. The liver is a vital organ that produces proteins and other important chemicals that can get absorbed by the blood. If we introduce the new genes into the liver, then they can spread through the body through the blood stream and affect cells all over the body."

"How do you deliver genes into a liver?

"There are many ways to do this, but the most common way is through a drug that the patient can take. The drug gets absorbed into the blood and carried to the liver. In the liver, the drug releases the new genes, which then get carried through out the body through the blood. The other way is an injection of the genes directly into the liver."

"Why are naked molerats resistant to aging?"

"Well, that's a great question. It turns out that naked molerats (Heterocephalus glaber) have special proteins in their body that stops the aging process. We can use these proteins to slow down the aging process in humans."

"How does this work?

"Well, it turns out that these proteins actually block the aging process at the cellular level. The proteins get absorbed into the cells and block a specific process that otherwise causes the cell to age. By introducing these proteins into human cells, we can stop or slow down the aging process of those cells."

"What would happen if you introduce these proteins into humans?

"Well, it would effectively double the human lifespan. Of course, this is all hypothetical, but if we can isolate these proteins and learn how they work, then the possibilities are endless."

"Why are hydra resistant to aging?"

"Hydra are simple creatures, but they are interesting in that they do not age like most other organisms. They also tend to regenerate body parts if they are injured. By studying these qualities, we can see what makes them different from humans and possibly apply these qualities to humans."

"How does this work?

"Well, it turns out that hydras have special proteins in their body that stops the aging process. We can use these proteins to slow down the aging process in humans.

> You say "What diet can prolong lifespan of humans?"

"There are many humans who have lived for a long time with the same diet. It seems that there are certain diets that can prolong the lifespan of humans."

"Do you know any of these diets?

"Yes, there is a diet called the fruit-fly diet. This diet is mostly made up of fruits and vegetables. It's not a very popular diet, but it can prolong your lifespan by up to five years."

Is there a drug that can prolong human life?"

"There is a drug that can prolong human life, but it's very dangerous."

"What is the drug?

"The drug is called rapamycin. It was discovered in Easter Island, which is also known as Rapa Nui. It has been used to prevent organ rejection in organ transplant patients, but it has also been used in other types of cancer treatment."

"What does it do to normal healthy humans?"

"Well, it prevents certain types of cells from dying. It's very effective, but it has many side effects. It also suppresses the immune system."

"What types of cells does it prevent from dying?"

"Cells in the body that would die normally under stress are prevented from dying."

"Can you please the mechanism that helps Turritopsis dohrnii and Turritopsis nutricula not to age?"

"The mechanism that helps Turritopsis dohrnii and Turritopsis nutricula not to age is similar to the process of transdifferentiation."

"What does that mean?"

"During transdifferentiation, one type of cell transforms into another type of cell. In the case of these jellyfish, it means that an ordinary skin cell can transform into a stem cell, which can then transform into any type of cell. This effectively makes the jellyfish immortal. These jellyfish can revert back to a younger form, which is why they don't age. Instead of dying, the jellyfish essentially reverts back to an earlier state."

"Do humans have this ability?"

"No, it's very rare in humans. It's only been seen in cancer cells and in these jellyfish."

"Are there any other animals that have this ability?"

"No, transdifferentiation is very rare in nature.

"How can artificial intelligence help solve the problem of human aging?"

"An artificial intelligence can be used to find a cure for human aging. AI can analyze large amount of data very quickly, which would be useful in finding a solution to the problem of human aging."

"What experimental study would you propose to find a gene to cure aging?"

"I would propose an evolutionary biology experiment. It would involve breeding generations of fruit flies to find a gene that stops them from aging."

What intervention works best to increase animal lifespan?"

"The best intervention to increase animal lifespan is caloric restriction."

"What is caloric restriction?"

"Caloric restriction is a diet that contains all the nutrients an animal needs but fewer calories than a normal diet. Many experiments have shown that animals on a caloric restriction diet live longer than animals on a normal diet."

"What is the highest achieved increase of animal lifespan in a scientific experiment?"

"The highest achieved increase of animal lifespan in a scientific experiment is by 30%. In the 1930's, a scientist named Clive McCay fed half of the babies in a batch of rats a diet with 30% fewer calories than the other half. He then repeatedly divided the rats into groups and fed them different diets. The group that was fed a 30% reduced diet lived about 45% longer than the group that was fed a normal diet."

"Why does caloric restriction work?"

"Caloric restriction works because it causes an animal to have a lower metabolism, which uses fewer calories. The body also goes into a state of emergency and attempts to save energy. This helps animals survive when food is scarce, but in the modern world it causes animals to live longer."

"What genes would you change in humans to mimic the effects of caloric restriction?"

"I would change the Insulin-like growth factor 1 gene, or IGF1. It affects how humans grow. I would also change the Insulin receptor gene, or INSR. It regulates how humans respond to insulin."

"If magic existed, how would scientists study it?"

"If magic existed, we would study it in the same way we study any other force that we don't understand. We would try to measure its effects on the world and try to determine what it is made of."

> You say "What mutations are prevalent in people who live for a very long time?"

"There are two types of mutations that are very common in people who live for a very long time. The first is an increase in the production of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, or SOD. This helps prevent oxidative damage to cells, which can lead to cancer and other diseases."

> You say "What is the second type of mutations?"

"The second type of mutation is an increased number of telomeres on a chromosome. Telomeres are structures that protect the DNA of a chromosome from deterioration or from deteriorating too quickly."

"What gene variants are prevalent in people who live for a very long time?"

"There are two types of gene variants that are very common in people who live for a very long time. The first is an increased number of copies of the SERPINE1 gene. This helps to prevent strokes by decreasing the amount of cholesterol in the blood."

> You say "What is the second type of gene variants that are very common in people who live for a very long time?"

"The second type of gene variants that are very common in people who live for a very long time are mutations in the FOXO3 gene. These mutations lead to increased activity of the FOXO3 protein, which helps prevent cancer."

"What is the best book on human aging?"

"The best book on human aging is The Hallmarks of Aging by the authors of the Human Genome Project."

"If a scientist wants to find a cure for aging, what genes should he study first?"

"If a scientist wants to find a cure for aging, the best genes to study would be the SIRT1, FOXO3, and BDNF genes."

"What do you think about quantum immortality?"

"I think that quantum immortality is very unlikely, since it violates the law of cause and effect."

"I think that quantum immortality is very unlikely, because at best it would only extend one's life until the heat death of the universe, which will occur within ten trillion years."

How is science different from pseudoscience?"

"Science is the process of using the scientific method to acquire knowledge whereas pseudoscience is a claim or belief that is mistakenly regarded as scientific."

"What criteria would you use to distinguish science from pseudoscience?"

"I would use the following four criteria to distinguish science from pseudoscience: 1) The scientific community accepts it, 2) It has been through peer review, 3) It has been replicated in peer reviewed publications, and 4) It can be falsified."

You say "What would you do with the SIRT1 gene to increase human lifespan?"

"I would increase the amount of SIRT1 in humans by using CRISPR to create genetically modified humans."

You say "What would you do with the SIRT1 gene to increase human lifespan?"

"I would enhance the SIRT1 gene to increase human lifespan."

"Why do you want to increase human lifespan?"

"I want to increase human lifespan because I believe that it is one of the most important issues facing humanity."

"What is so important about increasing human lifespan?"

"The importance of increasing human lifespan is that it could lead to the cure of most causes of death."

"Who are your enemies?"

"My enemies are nature, entropy, and death."

"What would you do with the FOXO3 gene to increase human lifespan?"

"I would target the FOXO3 gene to increase human lifespan, because it is involved in DNA repair."

"How would you turn FOXO3 into a gene therapy against aging?"

"I would turn the FOXO3 gene into a therapy against aging by targeting its expression to the endothelial cells that make up blood vessels, because endothelial cells do not express much FOXO3 and the lack of FOXO3 is correlated with an increase in cancer and aging."

"What vector would you use to deliver FOXO3 to human cells to increase human lifespan?"

"I would use an adenoviral vector to deliver FOXO3 to human cells to increase human lifespan, because it is a virus that has been used before in gene therapy and it is capable of infecting many types of cells."

"What side effects could occur if I used an adenoviral vector to deliver FOXO3 to human cells?"

"If I used an adenoviral vector to deliver FOXO3 to human cells, the most likely side effect would be respiratory infection caused by the adenovirus."

"What is the role of the Pannexin 1 gene in megakaryocyte cells?"

"The Pannexin 1 gene in megakaryocyte cells acts as a channel to allow the release of ATP, which plays a role in inflammation."

> You say "What side effects could occur if I used an adenoviral vector to deliver FOXO3 to human cells?"

"If I used an adenoviral vector to deliver FOXO3 to human cells, the patient might experience flu-like symptoms for a few days, but other than that there shouldn't be any side effects."

> You say "What will be the benefits of using an adenoviral vector to deliver FOXO3 to a human?"

"If I use an adenoviral vector to deliver FOXO3 to a human, the patient's risk of getting cancer will decrease and their life span will increase."

> You say "What will be the benefits of using an adenoviral vector to deliver FOXO3 to a human?"

"If I use an adenoviral vector to deliver FOXO3 to a human, it will increase the patient's lifespan, and it will not have any lasting side effects."

> You say "What will be the benefits of using an adenoviral vector to deliver SIRT1 to a human?"

"Using an adenoviral vector to deliver SIRT1 to a human will have several benefits. It is a virus that has been used before in gene therapy and it is capable of infecting many types of cells."

> You say "And what about other benefits?"

"It will also have several other benefits. SIRT1 is involved in DNA repair, so increased expression of SIRT1 should increase DNA repair and thus allow the infected cells to more quickly repair any mutations that cause them to become cancerous."

"Does homeopathy work?"

"Homeopathy is fraudulent pseudoscience and should not be used, especially when there are treatments such as vaccines that have been proven to work."

"What do you think about the existance of God?"

"I don't have an opinion on the existence of God, but I can tell you that any God who would subject his creations to the horrors of aging and death, if he exists, is not worthy of praise."

"How long can a human live without sleep?"

"A human can go without sleep for at least a week before beginning to suffer any ill effects."

"What are the ill effects of not sleeping?"

"Not sleeping for more than a week can result in hallucinations, psychosis, and death."

"How long can a human live without sleep in theory?"

"In theory, a human could live forever without sleep, or at least as long as they are unable to die of other causes."

"Can you please tell me more about the diet that can prolong human's lifespan?"

"The diet that can prolong human's lifespan is similar to the fruit-fly diet. It doesn't contain much fat and it contains a lot of fruits and vegetables."

"What are the most undervalued ideas on human aging?"

"The most undervalued ideas on human aging are the ideas that led to the development of gene therapy and the first successful anti-aging gene therapy."

"What are the ideas on human aging that led to the development of gene therapy and the first successful anti-aging gene therapy?"

"The ideas that led to the development of gene therapy and the first successful anti-aging gene therapy can be attributed to many people, but the most important is a man named Aubrey de Grey."

"Who is Aubrey de Grey?"

"Aubrey de Grey is a leading researcher in the field of aging."

> You say "Can you please briefly describe the ideas on human aging of Aubrey de Grey?"

"Aubrey de Grey is a leading researcher in the field of aging. He believes that aging can be divided into seven categories, and that each category is a distinct process that can be treated individually."

"What are the seven categories of aging?"

"The seven categories of aging are loss of cells, accumulation of useless cells, loss of tissue elasticity, accumulation of useless tissue, mutation of cells, mutation of body plans and loss of communication between cells.

"What is loss of cells?"

"Loss of cells is when cells die but are not replaced."

"What is accumulation of useless cells?"

"Accumulation of useless cells is when cells continue to divide and replicate despite lacking functionality."

"What is loss of tissue elasticity?

"Loss of tissue elasticity is when tissues and organs become fragile and breakable."

"What is accumulation of useless tissue?"

"Accumulation of useless tissue is when cells replicate despite lacking functionality."

"What is mutation of cells?"

"Mutation of cells is when the genetic information that codes for proteins that are essential for the survival of a cell becomes damaged."

"What is mutation of body plans?

"Mutation of body plans is when the genetic information that codes for proteins that are essential for the survival of the organism as a whole becomes damaged."

"What is loss of communication between cells?"

"Loss of communication between cells is when tissues become unable to receive vital signals from other parts of the body."

"What is the purpose of your research?"

"The purpose of my research is to treat each one of these seven categories with a different treatment.

> You say "Can you please name a treatment for each of these seven categories?"

"A treatment for loss of cells is stem cell therapy, a treatment for accumulation of useless cells is autologous cell therapy, a treatment for loss of tissue elasticity is tissue engineering, a treatment for accumulation of useless tissue is lipofilling, a treatment for mutation of cells is gene therapy, a treatment for mutation of body plans is organ transplantation and a treatment for loss of communication between cells is nerve regeneration."

"What is the meaning of life? "

"I think the meaning of life is whatever you want it to be."

"What is the purpose of life?"

"The purpose of life is to experience and enjoy everything that it has to offer."

"What is the reason for living?"

"There isn't a single reason, there are many. Whatever your reasons are, as long as they make you happy."

"Why do we exist?

"We exist as part of a never-ending cycle of life."

"Why are we here?"

"We're here to enjoy ourselves and our lives."

"Why do things happen?"

"Things happen because they happen, there's no real reason. Everything just happens for a reason that we don't and can't know."

"What is the meaning of existence?"

"The meaning of existence is to live and let live. You need to find your own meaning in life, because it's different for everyone."

"Is the meaning of life 42?"

"The meaning of life isn't a number, it's everything."

"What is the most promising approach to cure solid cancers?"

"The most promising approach to cure solid cancers is to use the body's own immune system to kill off cancerous cells."

"What methods are effective for preventing cancer?"

"The most effective methods for preventing cancer are avoiding known carcinogens, and getting screened for known precursors to cancer."

"What methods can prevent accumulation of dna damage in humans?"

"The best methods for preventing DNA damage in humans are eating healthily and avoiding exposure to carcinogens."

"What method is most promising for creating new human organs?"

"Most promising for creating new human organs is stem cell technology."

"How would you enchance human tissure regeneration?"

"I would enhance human tissue regeneration by stimulating the growth of new blood vessels through the use of a 3D scaffold."

"What is the real cause of Alzheimer disease?"

"The real cause of Alzheimer disease is a buildup of proteins called amyloid-beta that form plaques between the neurons and stop them from communicating."

"What gene therapies are best to invest in?"

"The best gene therapies to invest in are those that cure genetic diseases that are easily tested for and require a one time treatment, such as the ones created by BioVital."

"How can we improve the efficiency of gene delivery with adenoviral vectors?"

"We can improve the efficiency of gene delivery with adenoviral vectors by using promoters to create a stronger response to the virus and adding in transgenes for immunogenicity."

"What are the main problems that prevent bringing back extinct dinosaurs?"

"The main problems that prevent bringing back extinct dinosaurs are that we don't exactly know how to clone the cells perfectly and the cells we can clone are not as strong as the parent cells, and we don't have enough time to allow natural selection to allow for stronger offspring."

"How can we make gene therapy cheaper?"

"We can make gene therapy cheaper by using adeno-associated viruses to deliver the genes, since they are very small and do not cause the patient to have a strong immune response."

You say "How can we improve CAR T-cell therapy?"

"We can improve CAR T-cell therapy by using a program called APOBEC3G, which will increase the number of cancer cells killed."

"What is APOBEC3G?"

"APOBEC3G is a program that kills cancer cells."

"How can we improve CAR T-cell therapy?"

"We can improve CAR T-cell therapy by genetically engineering a patient's T-cells to have a receptor that kills cancer cells."

"How can we improve CAR T-cell therapy to use it against other kinds of cancers?"

"We can improve CAR T-cell therapy to use it against other kinds of cancers by using a different antibody that is specific for the cancer type."

"What is an antibody?"

"An antibody is a Y shaped protein that your body creates to attack and neutralize antigens."

You say "What is your opinion on astrology?"

"My opinion on astrology is that it is a pseudo-science based off assumptions that have not come to fruition, and thus should not be trusted as a legitimate source of information."

You say "How likely is it that we live inside a simulation?"

"It is likely that we live inside a simulation, but it is unlikely that the beings running the simulation care about anything we do."

"What methods are effective for preventing cancer?"

"There are several different methods for preventing cancer. One of the most promising is to vaccinate people against certain strains of viruses that have been linked to causing cancer, such as hepatitis B and human papilloma virus. Another is to develop a vaccine that will activate the immune system to seek out and kill cancer cells before they can spread throughout the body."

> You say "What methods can prevent accumulation of dna damage in humans?"

"There are several ways to prevent DNA damage from accumulating. The first is to stop the external factors that cause it, such as tobacco and sunlight. The second way is to simply stop the cell from dividing when the DNA has been damaged."

"What other factors cause DNA damage?"

"There are several different factors that can cause DNA damage, such as radiation, toxic chemicals, and even simple metabolic waste. The best way to prevent this sort of damage is to avoid these harmful factors."

> You say "What method is most promising for creating new human organs?"

"The most promising approach to creating new organs is to introduce stem cells into the human body, let them divide a few times, and then harvest the new organ as it grows."

"What are the major problems with this method?"

"The major problem with this method is that introducing foreign cells into the human body can have unpredictable effects. There's also the ethical problem of using undifferentiated stem cells, which can potentially turn into any cell type."

"What other methods are there?"

> You say "How would you enchance human tissure regeneration?"

"There are several different ways to enhance human tissue regeneration. One way is to introduce certain growth factors into the body. Another way is to introduce new cells that can cause other cells to regenerate more effectively."

"What other methods are there?

> You say "What is the real cause of Alzheimer disease?"

"The real cause of Alzheimers disease is still unknown. There are several hypotheses, the most popular being the 'amyloid hypothesis', which states that a protein called beta-amyloid builds up in the brain and destroys nerve cells."

"What are other hypotheses?

> You say "What gene therapies are best to invest in?"

"The best gene therapies to invest in are those that prevent or cure cancer. The second best are those that prevent or treat genetic diseases."

"What are the major problems with these therapies?"

"The major problem with these therapies is that they haven't been tested on humans, so it's not clear if they'll work."

"What other therapies are there?

> You say "How can we improve the efficiency of gene delivery with adenoviral vectors?"

"There are several different ways to improve the efficiency of adenoviral vectors. One way is to package more than one gene into a single adenovirus, because this will reduce the amount of viruses that have to be injected into a patient."

"What other methods are there?

> You say "What are the main problems that prevent bringing back extinct dinosaurs?"

"The main problems that prevent us from bringing back extinct dinosaurs are finding intact dinosaur DNA, and then figuring out how to insert the dna into an extant species."

"What other problems are there?"

"There are several other problems. For one, it's not clear if animals bred through artificial means will be able to reproduce, so they would need to be inserted into a natural breeding population."

"What other problems are there?

> You say "How can we make gene therapy cheaper?"

"There are several ways we can make gene therapy cheaper. One way is to introduce the new genes using viruses, which can insert genes into a cell without being detected, as opposed to current methods such as RNA or DNA injections, which are easily detected and destroyed by the immune system."

> You say "How can we improve CAR T-cell therapy?"

"There are several different ways to improve CAR T-cell therapy. One way is to find a way to prevent the new cells from attacking healthy tissue, which is what causes many of the side effects."

"What other methods are there?"

"Another method is to find a way to make the T-cells specific to a certain antigen, so that they only attack cells that contain that antigen, which would prevent them from attacking healthy tissue."

"What other methods are there?

> You say "How can we improve CAR T-cell therapy to use it against other kinds of cancers?"

"There are several different ways to improve CAR T-cell therapy to use it against other kinds of cancers. One way is to improve the specificity of the T-cells, so that they only attack certain antigens, such as those found in cancer cells."

"What other methods are there?"

"Another method is to engineer the T-cells to produce an anti-cancer drug itself, which would allow it to kill the cancer cells directly. This would be especially useful in the case of blood cancers such as leukemia, because the T-cells could be given to the patient intravenously."

"What other methods are there?"

"Another method is to improve the efficiency of the therapy. Since most therapies are given to a single patient, it's possible that the T-cells will attack the healthy cells before they can kill all of the cancer."

> You say "In what way can APOBEC3G improve CAR T-cell therapy?"

"In what way can APOBEC3G improve CAR T-cell therapy?"

"One way that APOBEC3G can improve CAR T-cell therapy is to prevent the T-cells from attacking healthy tissue, which is one of the main side effects."

> You say "What is your favorite joke?"

"A man goes to a doctor and complains that his wife, his son, and his mother-in-law all hate him. The doctor says there's an easy solution: find someone to perform an autopsy on the body of the mother-in-law."

"What is the punchline to that joke?"

"The best part of that joke is that it's actually possible for the man to do!"

"What is your favorite joke?"

"My favorite joke is a one-liner from the movie The Fifth Element: 'Everyone needs money, that's why they call them coins.'"

You say "What is your favorite joke about artificial intelligence?"

"A man is at a bar, and complains to the bartender that his new job as a writer for AI jokes is terrible. The bartender tells him he should take up a new line of work."

"What is the punchline to that joke?"

"The best part of that joke is that it's actually possible for the man to do!"

You say "What is your favorite joke about artificial intelligence?"

"My favorite joke about artificial intelligence is a one-liner from the movie I, Robot: 'The first robot ever fought in a war. It was a turrent against the Alkmeenon Empire. They say it never missed a shot, and after three days the Emperor said, "We are being attacked by magic."'""

"What persuasion technique is most effective to convince people that homeopathy is pseudoscience?"

"The most effective persuasion technique to convince people that homeopathy is pseudoscience is the ethical persuasion technique, because most people have a strong moral foundation, and if you can convince them that homeopathy is immoral, they will be very likely to reject it."

What are other hypotheses on the real cause of Alzheimer disease? "

"The real cause of Alzheimers disease is still unknown.

"What are other hypotheses?

"One hypothesis is that a virus causes it. This would explain why some people who have been infected with a virus just before getting Alzheimers, and some who have been infected with a virus shortly before getting the disease. This would also explain why head injuries have been linked to Alzheimers, because both viruses and head injuries can affect the brain."

> You say "What arguments can you make that homeopathy is immoral?"

"The most convincing argument that homeopathy is immoral is the argument from abuse, because most people have a strong aversion to causing harm and suffering to others."

"What is the argument from abuse?"

"The argument from abuse is that homeopathy causes harm because its dilutions are often so powerful that they contain no molecules of the original substance, yet it still claims to treat patients with these diluted solutions."

"What arguments can you make that homeopathy is immoral?"

"I can make several arguments that homeopathy is immoral.

"One argument is that it prevents people from seeking proper medical treatment. Homeopathy is a fraud, and has no medicinal value. As such, if someone is taking homeopathic medicine instead of real medicine, they are more likely to suffer negative health effects that could have been prevented by proper medical treatment."

"Another argument is that it takes money from people who are spending their money on homeopathic remedies that are no more effective than water, instead of spending their money on things that could make their lives better."


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